-       Stock exchanges start competing for clients by offering new products and multi-listing platforms: London Stock Exchange – Direct Listing; Frankfurt Exchange – new regulation; Indian Stock Exchange – Direct Listing; Toronto Venture Exchange- expedite filing for Qualified transactions; OTCBB – OTCQX for direct dual listing

-       Companies don’t need banks, with their enormous fees and overhead, anymore.  Companies can list directly with exchange to cut costs and have more influence over the outcome

-       Exchange allows for companies to set up their own valuation

-       Companies can cut cost of going public, have more control over their valuation, and better utilize advantages of being publicly traded companies, such as raising funds, making acquisitions, obtaining credit lines, and issuing financial instruments and debentures

-       Hedge Funds preferred to invest into publicly listed companies instead of private companies, due to liquidity issues in private companies, especially for minority shareholding